Understanding Turntable Components


Ever wondered what goes into the making of that perfect, rich, and warm sound produced by a turntable? For our discerning audience in the audiophile community, we know how important it is to understand the details. So, let's take a deep dive into the world of turntables and their key components: the platter, tonearm, cartridge, and phono stage. You'll come away with a greater appreciation for the intricate dance of technology and design that makes vinyl such a beloved medium for music.

The Basics of Turntables and Their Components

To understand turntables, it's helpful to get a sense of the key components involved and how they function together to produce sound. A turntable is essentially a system designed to convert the mechanical energy from a vinyl record's grooves into electrical signals that can be amplified and turned into music.

The major components are:

  1. The Platter: This is the rotating plate where you place your record. It's spun by the turntable's motor and maintains a consistent speed, which is essential for accurate sound reproduction.

  2. The Tonearm: This part holds the cartridge and stylus, tracking across the record as it plays.

  3. The Cartridge: Usually mounted on the end of the tonearm, the cartridge contains the stylus and converts the mechanical vibrations from the record into an electrical signal.

  4. The Phono Stage (or Phono Preamp): This boosts the low-level signal from the cartridge to a level suitable for amplification and further processing.

turntable components

Check out our collection of carefully curated turntables to see these components in action.

Platter: The Heart of the Turntable

The platter of a turntable is akin to the heart in a living organism, setting the rhythm for everything else. It's crucial to the overall function of a turntable because it needs to spin at a consistent speed to prevent fluctuations in pitch. The platter's weight and material can also affect the overall sound quality. Heavier platters are generally preferred as they're more stable and less prone to vibrations or speed fluctuations.

Tonearm: The Bridge Between Vinyl and Sound

The tonearm is a critical component that can make a significant difference in sound quality. It acts as a bridge between the vinyl record and the sound system, tracking the grooves of the spinning record with precision. The length, material, and design of the tonearm all play roles in the tracking accuracy and audio fidelity. Tonearms come in different types, like straight and S-shaped, each with its unique pros and cons.

Cartridge: Translating Grooves into Audio

Located at the end of the tonearm, the cartridge is the component that translates the mechanical energy from the record's grooves into an electrical signal. Within the cartridge is the stylus, usually a diamond tip, which reads the grooves of the record as it spins on the platter. There are two main types of cartridges: moving magnet (MM) and moving coil (MC). Both have their strengths, and the choice often comes down to personal preference.

Phono Stage: Amplifying the Sound

The electrical signal produced by the cartridge is quite weak and needs to be amplified before it's sent to your speakers. This is where the phono stage, or phono preamp, comes in. Some turntables have a built-in phono stage, while others require an external one. An external phono stage is often preferred by audiophiles as it provides more room for customization and potential improvements in sound quality.

You can browse our collection of phono stages to see what might best fit your setup.

How These Components Work Together

While each of the components we've discussed is interesting in its own right, the real magic happens when they all work together. The platter spins the record at a constant speed, the tonearm moves the cartridge and stylus across the record, the stylus picks up the tiny variations in the grooves, the cartridge converts these into an electrical signal, and the phono stage amplifies this signal so that it can be sent to your speakers and converted into sound. It's a delicate and intricate process that results in the unique, warm sound that vinyl lovers cherish.

Choosing the Right Turntable: What to Consider

When it comes to choosing a turntable, there's no one-size-fits-all answer. You'll need to consider what's most important to you, whether that's audio fidelity, convenience, design, or cost.

And remember, when you purchase from Apos Audio, you're backed by our price match and free shipping guarantees, as well as our generous return policy and warranty.


Whether you're a seasoned audiophile or just beginning your journey into the world of vinyl, understanding the core components of a turntable can enrich your listening experience. Each part, from the platter to the phono stage, plays a critical role in converting those vinyl grooves into the music we love. It's a beautiful blend of technology and artistry that continues to captivate the audiophile community around the world.